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Urological issues in men

 Dr Aasem Masood Chaudhry, a urological surgeon at Bedford Hospital, United Kingdom talks about common urological issues in men

SN: What is the importance of urinary system?sni

Some systems are critical to body functioning or remaining alive. Urinary system is one of those essential systems. It works as a filter which removes toxins and waste from the body.sni

SN: Which urological issues are common in men?sni

Common ones are related to prostate. Prostate is an organ present only in men. Due to its nature, after the age of 40 years it starts to enlarge. By the age of 50 years, approximately 50 percent of men will notice changes in bladder function and urinary system. As the age progresses further conditions like benign enlargement and cancer affects prostate and stones usually affect kidneys.sni

SN: If a person has one problem, will it gradually lead to the other?sni

Yes, to some extent. Systems or organs of our body are interdependent. If one does not function properly, others will be affected. For example, prostate enlargement leads urine retention in body. This disturbs kidney function which further affects the whole body. Therefore, it is important to keep critical organs healthy so other organs can function normally too.sni

SN: Which symptoms of prostate problems require urgent medical attention?sni

Getting up multiple times at night for urinating, having unusual frequency during daytime, significant changes in the amount of mucous present in urine and flow of urine, blood in urine, difficulty in emptying the bladder or having a feeling that it is not empty are some of the signs. If ignored for a longer period, about nine percent of the patients develop urinary retention (inability to passurine).sni

SN: Does prostate enlargement have anything to do with unhealthy lifestylesni

No, lifestyle does not have a direct role. Its enlargement or ability to develop tumors is a natural process which has less chances of being affected by lifestyle changes.sni

SN: What are the treatment options for prostate issues. Also when does surgery become necessary?sni

Most of them can be dealt with medicines or management. If medical therapy fails and patients develop complications like urinary retention then surgical intervention becomes mandatory.sni

SN: What can be done to ensure good prostate health?sni

As mentioned earlier, lifestyle changes cannot impact prostate health directly. But, staying healthy is important for the whole body. Hence, it is important to attend to symptoms early and have screening tests done as recommended by the doctor.sni

SN: Why do some feel burning sensation while urinating?sni

It can be due to urinary tract infection. Other causes are dehydration, concentrated urine, consumption of spicy food and inflammation in urethra (tube that allows urine to pass out of body) etcetera. In some patients identifying a cause is difficult or the symptom can be of neurological origin.sni

Caffeine does not affect everybody in a bad way. But if bladder is sensitive to caffeine, it can be irritated or stimulated by its intake

SN: How does caffeine affect bladder?sni

Caffeine does not affect everybody in a bad way. But if bladder is sensitive to caffeine, it can be irritated or stimulated by its intake. Signs of bladder sensitivity include going to toilet frequently and having difficulty controlling the urge to void. Some face incontinence too that is leakage of urine. In this case withdrawing caffeine can make symptoms disappear.sni

SN: Other than removing caffeine what other measures can prevent bladder issues?sni

Two parts of bladder determine the ability to control bladder or bowels. One is the functioning of bladder muscles and other is the controlling mechanism knows as sphincter.  Many factors affect these and the coordination between the two like prostatic issues, bladder dysfunction and neurological conditions.sni

Every patient is unique and requires evaluation by a urologist to determine the cause, only then the problem can be prevented or treated. For example, if the problem is in pelvic floor muscle, then pelvic physiotherapy is required. In case of bladder muscle dysfunction, doing certain exercises and avoiding caffeine and spicy foods can help.sni

SN: What are the common causes of urinary incontinence?sni

Prostate related issues in men and childbirth or hormonal changes after menopause in women are common causes. Urethral problems in both genders can also be a reason.sni

SN: Can holding urine for prolonged period disturb kidney function?sni

It is an unhealthy practice which leads to pooling of urine in the body. If the practice continues it affects kidneys and causes urinary tract infections. In elderly men it results in increased edema (swelling) of prostate that can worsen urinary symptoms.sni

SN:  Can urinating immediately after waking up from sleep lead to death?sni

Passing urine immediately after waking up has no significant hazards according to known facts. So this statement is incorrect.sni

SN: Can overuse of antibiotics and painkillers cause serious kidney problems?s

Yes. Particularly the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are directly related to kidney damage if taken in excessive amounts over prolonged periods. Many antibiotics are toxic too, so should only be consumed as prescribed by the doctor.sni

SN: What are the causes of kidney stones?sni

Excessive salt and meat intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables high in oxalate content like spinach, tomatoes or few berries can cause stones. They should be used in a balanced amount. Dehydration is another important factor and most common cause of kidney stones in Pakistan.sni

SN: What are the treatment options?sni

One treatment cannot be effective for all kinds of stones. However, Shock Wave Lithotripsy is effective in about 50 percent of the cases. In this procedure strong shock waves produced by lithotripters (machines) are targeted at stones. It is useful in case of small stones which are not very dense. Another option is Ureteroscopy, in which a thin flexible instrument is used to view urethra and bladder. Then stones are broken down through laser. Open surgical and laparoscopic techniques are used in complicated cases.sni

SN: Are all kidney stones problematic?sni

Yes. Their presence can lead to various problems so all stones require treatment and management. This management can vary from having surgical procedures to shock wave lithotripsy treatment to having no treatment. Generally, stones larger than 4mm require surgical intervention as they cannot pass on their own. If they do, they can cause excruciating pain and lead to multiple complications. Smaller ones continue to pass and may cause pain but not serious complications.sni

SN: Can stones recur?sni

Yes. In 50 percent of cases, they recur within five years.sni

SN: Are stones preventable?sni

It does not apply to all stones. But up to 50 percent are preventable if precautionary measures are taken.sni

Up to 70 percent of men are going to have prostate issues after the age of 80 years. So, generally all men above the age of 50 should get themselves checked once every five years

SN: When should men start getting regular checkups to ensure good urological health?sni

Majority of the issues are linked with age related changes in the urinary system. They tend to develop after 50 years of age except prostate problems. Up to 70 percent of men are going to have prostate issues after the age of 80 years. So, generally all men above the age of 50 should get themselves checked once every five years to make early diagnosis.sni

SN: What can be done to avoid complications?sni

Once the issue is noted seek professional help immediately. Delay in treatment can cause other problems and worsen the situation. This particularly applies to conditions affecting urinary system, kidneys or prostate. If addressed early, most of them can be treated through medication or procedures. Whereas delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to irreversible changes and potential damage. Also many urological conditions are preventable. So act appropriately at the right time.sni

common urological issues of men, urinary issues, prostate enlargement, mardon mai paishab k masail, health, shifa news, urological health

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